- A New Era in Energy Technology.
- A Basis for Development
- Putting the Cart Before the Horse.
- A World Apart and So Close Together.
- The Phenomena of the "Growing Pyramids"
- An Ancient Vision for our Future Survival
- Developing a Space Launch System
- Global Energy
- Collector Profile
- The Development of the Pyramid Technology
- Converting to Ground-produced Power
- Sun Temples
- Remote Collectors
- Delivering the Power
Beamed Energy is the technology of the past and of the future. It can be based on sunlight but also includes the possible use of microwaves, masers, lasers, xrays, photons and gamma rays. The energy can be collected on the ground or in space and then transformed, reflected and/or focussed or stored to be used or delivered at a later date.
Inevitably with so many variables, there are many possibilities to consider, which applied in the past as much as it does in the present day. And, as this section will demionstrate, we still have a lot to learn from the evidence from the distant past. Although not all-inclusive, I will try to include a representative section of the many ways in which I judge the evidence from the past best demonstrates the innumerable possibilities and matches with what is now emerging within this general field of science. To top
Much of the basics became obvious (to me) when I studied the full physical detail that was the original Great Pyramid, as described by Charles Piazzi Smyth, in 1864, in his book "Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid.". Even after 4,500 years of vandalism and decay the evidence was unmistable and in spite of my discovering massive inconsistencies in Smyth's conclusions, the quality of the building and what it represented was unmistakeable.
The Great Pyramid at Giza demonstrated evidence of the massive use of solar energy on a scale and in ways we have yet to even appreciate. let alone emulate and I was looking at evidence of a whole range of lost technologies. 50 years later, I am still weedling out some of the subtleties of this lost technology. To top
In fuel use, Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is commonly quoted as being "halfway to the rest of the solar system". It is claimed (by NASA and the Lightcraft consortium) that a micro-satellite (1kg in weight) could be launched into LEO on laser energy using just 1kg of reactant . And also that this represents a 1000x saving in fuel use.
The only problem with this claim is that it implies the reactant is also the energy which, simply put, it isn't. The reactant is only a part of the 'fuel' combination, which, in beamed energy systems per se, is split into two separate components, the reactant mass and the energy which is supplied to the craft by an energy beam. However, beamed energy propulsion by laser is only the tip of the poker. It may be the 'Hot option' in terms of technology but that doesn't necessarily make it the best. or the only possibility. In fact, far from it, since all forms of solar energy and everything in between come within this general category. To top
The launch technolgy has been proven as feasible with lasers but microwaves, masers, direct solar and even x-rays are possible options. Aside from Xrays (only suitable for unmanned cargo flights), the long term potential for microwaves, masers and even sunlight would seem more promising than lasers. And this doesn't even touch on all the other uses and applications for beamed energy in the broader scenario.
By inference from the data given by NASA, the energy requirement for the Lightcraft 'ionised air' beamed energy laser thrust system is of the order of 20kw/kg of thrust at the craft. Even being generous, this is not very high and to add to their woes, lasers are also high-tech and noted for their poor energy efficiency (~30% max) and poor reliability. They also perform horrendously poorly in anything but perfectly clear atmospheric conditions. A laser's efficiency in power delivery drops almost to zero with even the slightest optical interference, like clouds or dust particles. And finally, because a laser's energy-density is so high, it can also cause premature ignition of the air. Put bluntly, I suggest that at this point in time lasers are merely "toys for the boys" and not a practical option. To top
In contrast masers, the frequency-tuned form of microwaves, c an perform at around 90% efficiency and their transmission to GEO would be virtually unaffected by light cloud and mild pollution. Ordinary microwaves can also reach to LEO at even higher efficiency. Add to this the evidence from the distant past and it would seem clear that microwaves (tuned or otherwise) are the way to go. To top
Proposals from NASA suggest beamed energy from space could be used to supply our domestic needs, including space launches but claim it would require 20-30 shuttle flights to lift the necessary equipment into orbit, making the whole project prohibitively expensive. The proposal ignores the totally obvious solution. Why not use the same (beamed) energy technology to launch the satellite in the first place? It is merely a matter of developing the technology in the reverse order to that presently proposed. To top
The slow down in the development of BE technology since it was proven in 1997 has been put down to not having a sufficiently large laser to power anything bigger than a one kilogram craft. But when microwaves, masers and even x-rays have greater potential, reliability and efficiency than lasers, it seems a somewhat lame excuse. When these findings are add to the ancient evidence from Teotihuacan (Mexico) and Tiahuanaco (Bolivia) of the massive use of microwaves 1000 years ago it only points again to the failure of our research establishments to learn from the evidence of the past. To top
Archaeology and the advances in space science would seem miles apart but, when viewed holistically, the evidence would seem to suggest otherwise. The vast tunnel systems, lined with mica are clear indicators of the ancient use of microwaves. Those microwaves were clearly being delivered to the pyramids via the complex tunnel system, complete with massive sluices, could only have been built to launch air- and possibly spacecraft. With that ancient technology now proven in the modern era, at least in principle, it must surely be time to see what canbe learnt from the ancient evidence of an incredible technology lost in the mists of time.
There is no question the ancient achieved feats far beyond our modern abilities in just building the structures seen at Teotihuacan. Is it too much to believe that our modern engineers and technologists might learn something from a closer study of these sites ? To top
Around 1000CE, at least 35 major sites throughout Central America were operating with dozens and even hundreds of pyramids each. Sites, like Teotihuacan, Lamanai, Alta Ha and Cholula, to name but a few, are known to have had between 350 and 700 pyramids each. In addition, in tiny Belize alone, at least 600 smaller communities had one or two pyramids that must be seen as probable local launch sites.
Building on the evidence at Giza, the evidence of the extensive use of microwaves and microwaveguides at Teotihuacan is totally overwhelming. When put together, the combined evidence from these two sites can only be interpreted in one way. At both sites, beamed energy was used to launch air and/or spacecraft. At one site it was primarily solar energy, at thje other, clearly microwaves, and together, they prove the operation of a sophisticated technology that used beamed energy in ways only now being seen as feasible. Clearly we have a lot to learn by studying the evidence from the distant past. To top
In four specific, major regions throughout the Americas, there are over 43,000 pyramids on record, and other major pyramid complexes can be found at sites that stretch right around the world, including Egypt, china and on a series of islands across all the major oceans.
At every major site, small (mastaba) platforms were introduced first. They provided a simple raised (launch?) platform or dais that would have enabled energy collected from the immediate surrounding area to be directed beneath a craft with simple metal mirrors. To top
As trade increased, the incentive to lift ever-larger (and thus more profitable) payloads provided the motivation to build larger pyramids. The first pyramid was therefore progressively raised in height to increase the area from which energy could usefully be collected and other pyramids were added in an entirely predictable progression, repeated at pyramid sites around the world. To top
For almost 50 years, I have waited for BE Transmission and propulsion technology to be proven, knowing they would provide the ultimate, inescapable evidence of the use of beamed energy in the past.
However, I wrongly assumed that the (to me) totally obvious implications for the direction of future research would also be immediately apparent to others. In this I was sadly mistaken. It seems that specialisation in enginering and the separation between practical and academic research are simply too great. To top
Although any modern BEP launch system will initially be powered from the ground, the same basic principles must always apply. The energy must be delivered to the launch vehicle, preferably from both below and above at the same time. To top
The first stage could be to place a series of simple ultralight, inflated reflectors as high altitude balloons above the launch site, to reflect back microwaves beamed from the ground. As an interim measure, this would enable energy sources potntially sited well away from the launch site to supply (beamed) energy by reflection to the top of the launch vehicle. The vertical beams, reflected back down from high altitude (or even from space) could be very useful in creating a simple airspike above the launch vehicle. The reflectors could be similar to those trialled by Phillps Labs for possible use on solar-powered space tugs, to lift communication satellites from LEO to GEO. To top
The initial goal would be to rapidly build up launch capacity using beamed energy. Once the first full-blown Power Satellite was in orbit it would then be capable of directly powering further launches from space, precisely as seen at the early mastaba pyramids.
Ultimately, all the power required to launch satellites to GEO, would be supplied from space, enabling the rapid expansion of the whole Space energy power supply system. With the anticipated exponential growth and the re-development of other solar technologies, very soon all the energy required for all our needs could become available from space. Some of it would be direct solar and some ot it microwaves but it would all be free and clean and totally non-polluting. Ultimately, further expansion would rely on materials sourced from the moon or the asteroid belt. To top
*The Clark orbit is a Geosynchronous Earth orbit positioned directly over the Earth's equator. It is the only orbital path that remains absolutely stationary relative to the ground. To top
At the ground, the multiple beams would each form a footprint around 500m-1000m across but might waver slightly over a maximum footprint area approximately 5km-6km in diameter. Over the center of this area, covering approximately 500m, the overlapping beams would combine at around 10x the energy supplied by sunlight (ie simple insolation). At the perimeter (of the 5km) circle, the beam E/D would approximate the sun's energy but with the advantage of being available all year round (24/7).
Present proposals anticipate collecting this energy at the ground using aerial arrays known as rectennas. As the basis of most SSPS proposals, tests have shown this can be done at a very high collection efficiency (80%-90%).
However, if that energy was used directly (for propulsion) it could theoretically be directly reflected using simple, steer able metal mirrors. This would potentially be an extremely efficient and highly effective way of using the high E/D available at the center of the footprint area. To top
One of the great advantages of using microwaves is that not only can they be collected with a simple aerial array, they can also be reflected very efficiently, much like a beam of light but without the need for extreme, high quality, mirror-finish optics. All that is required is a simple metal mirror to focus the beam as required. microwave dish receivers with their characteristic horn that collects microwaves at the focal point of the mirror are now a familiar sight around our cities.
In the simplest form, a circle of mirrors surrounding a central collector tower could be used to reflect microwaves to a focus of intense energy at the top of the tower. A craft held at this focal point, with a suitable supply of reactant, could be propelled vertically at enormous acceleration. To top
By controlling the mirrors' focus, power could be supplied efficiently all the way to the GEO. Reports from NASA suggest that 10g's acceleration is entirely feasible (and 20g's is a theoretical possibility). The main variables in a practical launch system are the reactant to be used and (in the case of manned flights) the human limitations on high acceleration.
The amount of energy that can be collected and utilised in this way is directly proportional to the area of the collector and the energy-densities (E/D) within the system. With direct solar, the basic E/D will (obviously) be constant but with a manufactured energy supply it can be varied significantly. The primary considerations in the energy levels used will be those of (human) safety and, within earth's atmosphere, the problem of premature ignition. To top
An intense beam pointed skywards would present little to no danger to human life but obviously there would inevitably be major safety considerations for any beams directed towards the Earth.
[NB Biblical and other records strongly indicate the destructive potential of high powered lasers and/or microwaves from space. Sodom and Gomorrah are only two of many possible examples]
These same factors (of E/D) must also govern the height of the simplest types of launch tower in ancient times. Added height obviously gave added acceleration and power but initially the tower had to be high enough to enable (sufficient) energy to be brought to a focus beneath the launch vehicle to lift it from the ground. Because they used solar power (with a lower E/D), the true pyramids generally needed to be twice as large to collect sufficient energy. To top
Extrapolating a little, the layout depicted in the stepped pyramid above is precisely that seen at the more ancient (or primitive) pyramid sites all around the world. It also ties in closely with the fact that, very commonly, (stepped) pyramids were repeatedly enlarged. This ubiquitous fact becomes something of an anomaly if the builders had no contact with one another (as is claimed by traditional archaeology).
In ancient times there would (presumably) have only been just one power satellite (the alien mother ship) supplying launch sites on the ground below*. Many features of Djoser's pyramid (the first and largest stepped pyramid in Egypt) match precisely with what are entirely predictable design parameters of a ground receiver and launch station, as it was gradually developed to maximum launch capacity. All the pyramids that followed can be shown to have continued this progression in an entirely predictable way. To top
As trade increased, the obvious shortage of supply in the power department was met in the quickest and cheapest way possible, by developing (solar) energy technology at the ground to supply the additional energy needed during the launch stage, by far the most energy-hungry stage of any flight.
[* A single SSPS introduces factors in addition to those dealt with in this article To top
Solar Thermal Propulsion in space
Supplying additional energy during liftoff (using a large heliostat mirror layout) could potentially more than quadruple the launch system's total capacity and had a number of exponential effects, the scale of which would not necessarily have been apparent beforehand. To top
- 1. The additional energy could massively increase power through lift-off and the first stage of flight
- 2. More power meant larger payloads and significantly greater profits.
- 3. An independent supply of power reduced the extreme demand for microwave energy from space, previously required for all launches, including regional flights.
- 4. With primary launch acceleration supplied separately, by solar, the microwave system could maintain a supply of power at a consistent but much reduced level, again significantly increasing total capacity.
- 4. A 'solar' pyramid would also provide a local launch capacity entirely independent of any supply from space. With the addition of small pyramids throughout the region the trading opportunities would expand exponentially outside of the immediate area.
The oddly-shaped 'Bent Pyramid' at Saqqara precisely demonstrates the intermediate stage of this development and the timing of its construction also matches the chronology of the expansion of pyramid technology in Egypt.
Obviously successful, the Bent Pyramid led immediately to the completion of the first 'true' pyramid, the Red pyramid, also at Saqqara which would have provide an entirely independent launch capacity for local flights to a range of around 150km, the maximum effective range for unpressurised aircraft. To top
The introduction of solar energy during the launch was a major advance as it relieved the mother ship in space from supplying the greatly increased energy required during liftoff, the most critical stage of flight. Solar power quadrupled the total launch capacity into space and also provided potential for developing a regional network. However, the greatly increased launch capacity (to space), meant it was now the regional network that lagged in its ability to bring in the goods.
In response, the Pharaoh Sneferu returned to his first (stepped) pyramid at Meidum and, 20 years after its initial completion, he now converted it into the second 'true' pyramid.
The reconstruction completely explains what was previously a major enigma of Egyptian history. The conversion of the Meidum pyramid was clearly the quickest and most effective way to take advantage of the greatly increased capacity (and profitability) suddenly made available by adding solar energy through the first stage of a launch into space. Where previously the total energy available from space was needed for every launch, now only a small portion of this energy was needed to sustain acceleration beyond the range of reflected solar. The effect is illustrated below. To top
There are many benefits in upgrading to microwave power, but they are all characterised by the fact that the installations are far less massive and less precise than the requirements of a launcher using direct solar.
The most obvious development would be the replacement of the heliostat field with a (much smaller) field of microwave transducers and this is exactly what is evident at Giza with the next innovation, the mysterious Sun Temples. To top
Although there are six Sun Temples on record, only two have so far been physically located. Both of these were constructed as something of a distant companion to a conventional (small) true pyramid, being built at the samr time but about 2km (1 mile) away..
Similar to the historical pairing of the two "Shining Pyramids" (the Bent and Red pyramids at Saqqara) these new structures also share many common features.
Each Sun Temple was paired with the construction of a conventional true pyramid of similar height. The Sun Temples have an identical (but shorter) causeway, but otherwise match their companion in all the other features accepted as common to all the true pyramid complexes. To top
The evidence suggests the Sun Temples were the first ground-based microwave (or possibly laser) pyramid launchers in Egypt that converted (or generated) power at the ground rather than receiving their energy in transmissions from space. Their introduction allowed the local network services and the long-range delivery flights into space to be supplied separately.
The reduced length of the causeway (from 600m to 200m) suggests the direct solar/microwave transducers were around 4x as efficient of collector space as a heliostat system but the continued use suggests the new power supply was still seen as representing some sort of risk to visitors to the site. The development of Sun Temples is (once again) entirely consistent with the practical considerations involved in increasing the total launch capacity.
The size of the pyramidion at the top of the sun temple pyramid suggests the use of a maser (or possibly multiple lasers) as the power source. Within limits, the greater resolution of the power supply allows the focusing element to be far smaller, with significant and compounding effects on the total size of the whole structure. To top
The final stage of sophistication in developing an efficient ground-based launch system, was the establishment of remotely-based energy collectors. It is the one stage that, apparently, never took place in Egypt. It might reasonably be assumed that this final sophistication was only introduced (in America) long after the main Egyptian pyramids had ceased all operations.
The use of beamed energy has many variables and certain dangers. One obvious advantage of using microwaves is their high potential energy-density and their controllability. Their disadvantage is that all visitors must be shielded from any possible exposure. Although this is relatively easy to achieve, microwaves do represent a potential menace that is invisible and therefore somewhat scary. To top
Focused energy of all types can cause rapid and intense burning but sunlight and microwaves have somewhat different qualities. Sunlight is easily blocked by the stone walls (ie covered causeways) evident at Giza but controlling microwaves requires greater subtlety that may or may not be more physically obvious.
The beaming of a very high power maser through the atmosphere can also cause problems because of the potential risk of unwanted, explosive vaporisation of moisture in the air. To avoid this dangerous possibility, at the older (mastaba-style) launch complexes the energy beams were low intensity (~4x solar) and were only focused at the point beneath the craft where the energy must be released. To top
Collecting (microwave) energy at a location remote from the launch site has obvious advantages but then introduces the problem of delivering that energy safely to the launch pad without creating those potentially dangerous, premature explosions.
The solution is to contain the microwaves within a wave guide tunnel, sealed as far as practicable against the ingress of air and (especially) moisture. Within an enclosure, much higher energy levels can be effectively controlled, with far less risk. Excess moisture would be carefully boiled off and the partially sealed channel would then remain safe and dry and far more efficient at channeling energy at high density. Once the tunnel was made reasonably moisture-proof the microwaves could be channeled wherever they were needed simply by the use of control sluices. To top
However, because of the sheer quantities of power being handled, the tunnel must have a truly massive cross-section and be effectively insulated against radiation leakage.
This precisely what can be seen atTeotihuacan, the City of the Gods, in central north Mexico and at Tiahuanaco, in Bolivia. To top
The leakage of microwaves from the waveguide system can be controlled by insulation in one of two main ways, either by the manufacture of suitable, insulated components or by using naturally occurring materials. It appears both approaches have been adopted but at these two different locations.
The easiest solution was possibly to import large slabs of insulating material and simply place them in situ. This appears to be the solution exhibited at Teotihuacan where massive slabs of mica were used to line the foundations of pyramids and microwave guide tunnels. However, two slabs of this mica also provide irrefutable evidence of the advanced nature of the technology being used in another way. Weighing in excess of 600 tons each and 27.5m square and 300mm thick, the blocks demonstrate the builders incredible capabilities. The blocks, which must have been brought to the site by air, are 10x the mass of the space shuttle, the largest single payload ever carried by any modern aircraft. To top
The source of the mica has also been positively identified. It came from a mine in Brazil, 3200km (2000 miles) away. The mica blocks are arguable the most convincing evidence available anywhere of the use extraordinarily advanced technology in ancient times.
5000km away, at Tiahuanaco in Bolivia, at the Akapana pyramid, the insulation was apparently manufactured on site or nearby. Within this low but massive pyramid, archaeologists have discovered a vast and complex network of small ducted tunnels. To top
Individual tubes, 500mm in diameter, appear to have been beautifully and precisely manufactured out of blocks of stone. Despite their size and complexity , it has long been assumed at both sites (Teotihuacan and Tiahuanaco) that the vast tunnel systems were simply "grossly over-engineered" drainage systems.
I believe it will be found that these beautifully made blocks of stone are actually cast blocks of artificial geopolymer rock-concrete, containing a sufficiently high content of metal or mica compounds to turn the stone into a highly efficient microwave insulating material. To top
The evidence in Egypt and America (and everywhere that pyramids are found) is all entirely consistent with the development of a global transport network that used beamed energy in various forms to access our whole planet intermittently over a period of at least 5 millennia. The variations in pyramid design completely corroborate my theory that this technology was introduced by aliens, to gain access to Earth's mineral and biological riches and diversity. The human and sociological aspects are discussed elsewhere but are at least as conclusive as this physical evidence of their technology.
All that remains is to consider what can be learnt from the evidence globally, to help us (first) in building a new, clean, sustainable energy economy and a non-polluting aerial transport system. Ultimately, this technology will also give us access to the moon, the planets and the stars. To top