1. The conventional NRV Circulation within a conventional Storm Cell
- Mechanising the Engines of Nature.
- The Principal Elements.
- Understanding the Cylone.
- The ACE Mechanism.
- Basic Principle of all Heat Pumps.
- Principles of the ACE Mechanism.
- Aircraft Features and Benefits.
- The Artificial (ACE Aircraft) Energy Cycle.
- Extended benefits of ACE Aircraft and Pyramids.
Although the dominating feature of the ACE Mechanism is undoubtedly the central unit that contains the trigger mechanism, as seen in the Pharos Lighthouse tower at Alexandria, the ACE effect is actually driven and sustained by the product of a ring of heat towers placed equidistant in the water surrounding it.
Storm cells are created when vapour condenses rapidly, feeding into a positive feedback mechanism that triggers a vortex. As more vapour is drawn in, the vortex tends to intensify, creating an intense updraft as seen in (Fig. 1). Each storm cell sucks in air at its base and eventually expels it at the top. In a large collection of storm cells as occcurs in a Tropical Depression this creates a significant area of low pressure at sea level that may eventually trigger the formation of a cyclonic eye that allows air to be drawn downwards somewhere in the center of the depressionto relieve the pressure vacuum and setting up the signature inverted ring vortex of a cyclone's eye, unquestionably the most significant of all atmospheric phenomena. To top
According to NOAA, the exact trigger is commonly associated with the collapse of a (so-called) Hot Tower and (probably) the occurrence of a microburst but in my creating these effects artificially, actually proving the precise trigger mechanism was not considerred of great significance. It was simply necessary to replicate the desired result (Fig. 2), of an Inverted Ring Vortex (IRV) by an alternative mechanism. That mechanism involved developing any number of imdividual units that would combine to produce the necessary triggering effects.
Since a perimeter ring of thermal convective activity is clearly the primary driver of all cyclonic storm activity, creating this ring of thermals was the primary design imperative that could be produced by a ring of minarets, Thermal Towers or pyramids to replace the individual storm cells that trigger these same events in Nature. To top
Producing an IRV at sea level can obviously be divided into the expansion and contraction events within the energy cycle. The mechanism can essentially be divided into a ring of pyramids or similar structures designed to producing thermals and a taller central tower that contains elements individually designed to maximise the cooling of the air, generate an inverted linear vortex (ILV) and extract fresh water as condensate. Together, these numerous elements serve to maximise the desired events at the appropriate point within a continuing energy cycle.
Air passing around cooled panels within the central tower becomes more dense. This sets up an initial downwards airflow that must inevitably then radiates outwards over the warmer water surrounding the tower. The air picks up vapour and heat from the sea and is drawn into the ring of Thermal Towers, along with air from outside the ring. The Thermal Towers include a venturi mechanism that in turn creates a mild suction within sealed tubes connected to vortex generators stacked in series within the central tower. The vortex generators amplify the energy differentials, increasing vapour content and ultimately setting up the feedback mechanism of the ACE effect. To top
As the vapour rises from the perimeter ring of thermal towers, it cools and its relative humidity increases. As condensation starts, the volume contraction draws it inwards again to eventually drop down in and around the central tower before passing again outwards at speed over the surface of the warm water.
To maximise surface evaporation the surface air can be divided into two parts. The coldest air that has already passed through the core, ACE Mechanism of the tower, is carried in ducts positioned on the surface of the warm water. The mild suction within these ducts maximises the heat exchange process, producing warm air at high humidity for eventual release within the venturis of the thermal towers.
These processes can be enhanced by drawing cold water from the deeper parts of the ocean and by utilising shallow bays with deeper pools where heat and salinity variations can be encouraged to produce both positive and negative thermal haloclines as sources of both heat and cold. A controllable source of (non-potable?) fresher water could also be considered a considerable asset in setting up thermal haloclines on a daily basis if necessary.
Anything that encourages the continuing rotational cycle could be useful in creating an artificial replica of the ACE effect designed to produce pure, fresh water and possible energy produced. within a controlled energy cycle.
The record of the Pharos project suggests these events were all essentially powered in the same way, by the same vacuum that powered the vortex generators of the main tower. To top
Horizontal ring vortexes (both NRV and IRV) are stable phenomena and the NRV especially (see Fig. 1), is a part of every storm. Once established, their natural action allows them to extract energy from the surrounding atmosphere to well below the pre-existing ambient conditions. The vortex effects are responsible for the wind and the rain and for leaving the air cool and fresh after a storm's passage
However, while both (the NRV and IRV) are major players in driving our weather they otherwise have remarkably different characteristics and potentially draw their energy from entirely different sources. Like all vortexes, they commonly interact and are able to exchange energy and convert rapidly from one type to another. The control and harnessing of vortex phenomena is the ultimate key to accessing a free and unlimited source of both energy and fresh water. To top
Being far lighter than the surrounding air, the extreme buoyancy of a vapour bubble can make it almost impossible to physically contain but the vortexes they generate nevertheless have a major role to play in Climate Control.
All vortexes are infinitely scalable but require some sort of external trigger mechanism to get them going. In the case of the NRV, that mechanism is supplied naturally by the convective lifting of warm air. The more vapour in the air, the more intense the vortexes created and the stronger the lifting force and the likelihood of storm activity. This convective lifting applies to all storms and is entirely accepted physics.
The NRV (Fig.1) is an integral part of every storm and draws its energy primarily from vapour already held in the air. The NRV commonly starts as a result of the convective lifting of a bubble of vapour from a surface heated by the sun. To top
What I believe is new, is an understanding of what happens when (by chance or by design), a closed ring of convective lifting is able to establish an 'Inverted Ring Vortex', the IRV. Should an IRV become fully established, as occurs in the Eye and Eyewall of a Cyclone (see fig 2.), it demonstrates completely different characteristics to the NRV. The differences, between the NRV and IRV, are of immense significance in the workings of our climate and in their potential as a new and previously unrecognised source of free and readily accessible energy.
By its natural action and in stark contrast to the events in the surrounding storm, it is the rotation within the IRV at the heart of a cyclone that gives it its unique characteristics. Unlike the NRV, the inverted rotation develops a strong negative buoyancy and by pushing down against the the ground or sea it develops an enormous ability to release additional vapour (ie energy) from any wet surface (see fig 3).
Uniquely, the IRV also has a natural ability to access energy directly from not ONE but TWO unique sources within the atmosphere, from the water beneath and from the Stratosphere above (see 'How the Weather Works' elsewhere on this site). To top
Suitably harnessed, there can be little doubt the solar-powered phenomena that drive our weather have the clear potential to supply ALL our human needs as regards both energy and fresh water into the forseeable future.
In Nature, the IRV is the inner, driving mechanism of the fully developed cyclone (fig.2). When triggered by a microburst within a ring of conventional (NRV) storms within a Tropical Depression, the NRV/IRV combination becomes a cyclone, the most powerful of all storm phenomena. To top
A cyclone essentially comprises an IRV at the center of a massive, fully encircling NRV that itself is made up of potentially dozens or even hundreds of individual (NRV) storms that all act together to form the containing ring of the eyewall. Once fully established, a cyclone rarely dissipates until the eyewall containment mechanism is somehow broken, commonly by crossing a major coastline. Once fully established, unless its path crosses a coastline, the cyclone phenomenon can, in theory, continue at least until the sea freezes over. NB It is highly noteworthy that a fully developed storm can continue extracting energy even from the relatively cool waters of the North Atlantic Gulf Stream current that, although relatively warm is nevertheless far cooler than the tropical waters that first allowed the storm to develop.
The IRV is the central powerhouse or engine of Nature’s cyclone and, once formed, its intensity is largely independent of its size. When harnessed in miniature form, it has a special role to play in the large-scale production of power and fresh water and also in powering a novel type of aircraft. With some provisos, the IRV has almost unlimited potential to supply energy and fresh water directly from the atmosphere to meet all the needs of a modern, industrialised society. Once started, the only way of limiting the power of a cyclone is by breaking the vortex wall or by controlling the essential input of vapour. In Nature this normally happens when the storm crosses a major coastline. In a machine, other options may be considered. To top
The basic principle of the ACE Mechanism couldn't be simpler. Blow air radially outwards towards the perimeter of a circular horizontal 'ground plane barrier' (GPB) and you'll lower the air pressure at the center and in doing so, create lift. In an aircraft, the 'ground plane barrier' is an essential part of the aircraft. (see fig 4.)
By deduction and by elimination I have developed a series of mechanisms to initiate and artificially control the IRV. Initially developed for application in a novel aircraft, This ACE Mechanism (fig.4 ) initiates (in miniature) the vortex rotation seen in the heart of a cyclone. The vortex ring generate a region of extreme low pressure within the area of the GPB. As in the eye of a cyclone, this lifting force can in theory far exceed 1tonne/m2
In the (ACE) Aircraft application the vortex ring is isolated from the ground and confined to the vicinity of the craft. In other applications like power production or desalination, the essential ground plane barrier would indeed be the ground or the surface of the sea but the basic principles of its operation are otherwise identical. To top
A ring vortex has an innate ability to extract energy from vapour held naturally in the air. Once started, the recycling of both water and energy are thus inherent in the basic principles of any HRV within the atmosphere. In most circumstances, in extracting the energy to keep it aloft, an ACE aircraft would extract more water than was otherwise needed for its operation. Indeed, as within any normal storm, the vortex action would not only provide significant lift, it would actively generate an excess in the form of (rain)water.
In its ultimate form, receiving energy from a remote source, an ACE aircraft would have no need to carry fuel in any accepted sense. However, in the practical operation of a fully autonomous aircraft, the initial start mechanism would probably be kept operating at some level throughout the flight to power auxiliary systems and controls and for added reliability. It would also offer greatly improved overall performance, speed and versatility.
In the distant past (see Archaeology) the technology clearly involved the use of beamed energy from a remote source but until those systems too are redeveloped, I’ve substituted onboard systems that serve the same purpose. To top
The principles of the ACE mechanism are entirely similar to those applied in conventional refrigeration and air conditioning systems that are known to extract ~3½ x more energy from the atmosphere than is required to run the machine. The one major difference with the ACE mechanism is that the energy it produces is all high grade and thus, once started, it requires no grid connection to keep it going. In Nature, as with a conventional Heat Pump, (as any salesperson will happily announce), the heat pump mechanism can extract power and fresh water from the air or from any suitable source of open water and even, at a pinch, from ice or snow.
The ACE mechanism is potentially far simpler and vastly more efficient than any conventional modern heat pump and, once started, will produce energy of sufficiently high quality to have no need at all for any connection to the National Grid except perhaps to supply it with the excess energy it is able to produce. To top
Borrowing closely on the principles seem in the eye of a cyclone, once started,the ACE mechanism is driven by the expansion and contraction of water vapour that occur naturally within an inverted horizontal ring vortex (IRV). The vortex phenomena is formed entirely external to the body of the main mechanism and above the integral ground plane barrier that is an essential part of the body of the machine.
The lifting power of an unbroken ring vortex is developed in association with the artificial GPB and is the primary active mechanism. The ACE Mechanism provides the initial trigger to start and then control the IRV vortex phenomena in a controlled way that also serves to amplify and recycle much of the energy drawn in. The only by-product is fresh water. The additional energy is drawn as vapour from sources external to the machine by the low pressure and the winds created naturally by the vortex. A mechanical version clearly has far greater potential to significantly enhance the processes demonstrated in Nature in the eye of a cyclone. To top
The pressure drop in the eye of both cyclones and tornados has frequently been measured at over 100mb. This is more than double the lift force provided by the wing of the most efficient conventional aircraft but is seen as the minimum goal of vortex technology as it applies to this new type of aircraft.
A 100mb pressure drop represents a potential lifting force of ~1000kg/m2 and is well within the maximum set in Nature*. In the aircraft application, the GPB, an integral, circular part of the ACE mechanism that generates an IRV effectively attached to the machines perimeter. The whole top surface of the machine thus acts very much like the wing of a conventional aircraft but promises to be far more effective and efficient. (* In Nature, a record low of 870mb was recorded in (1979) Pacific Cyclone Tip. This is ~140mb below the standard atmospheric norm of ~1012mb and approximately equal to 1.4tonnes of lift per m2.) To top
As inherent design features, the VTOL, ACE-powered aircraft would have no significant undercarriage or fuel tanks and since the lifting force is applied to the whole top surface of the aircraft, the cabin and wings would essentially be combined as a single entity with uniformly high lift. Somewhat like a helicopter, the lifting force is produced independent of the aircraft’s movement through the air but can be vectored to provide forward propulsion.
This new aircraft will have superb VTOL performance and, in its ultimate form and powered remotely, would have no need at all for engines or fuel in the accepted sense. It could though store excess water collected as it passed through the lower atmosphere for use as reaction mass for flight higher into the upper atmosphere or even into space.
The aircraft would probably have a relatively light, flash tube boiler to produce high-pressure steam to provide the motive force for generating the main lift vortex. The steam could also provide direct thrust at higher altitude. The aircraft could operate essentially without moving parts, aside from valves and control surfaces. To top
In Nature, it is clear that, once started, the IRV mechanism of a cyclone is a self-sustaining and highly stable unit until broken by changing external circumstances, most commonly by crossing a coastline that breaks up the essential circle of storms. With its integrated ground plane and using enhanced forms of the same basic phenomena, the (artificial) ACE mechanism could thus potentially operate much as desired anywhere within the breathable atmosphere. With specific enhancements this flight envelope could be further extended into the upper atmosphere and possibly even into space, especially if supplied with energy from a remote source . To top
In extremely dry conditions, efficient operation may require the use of an onboard source of water vapour but under normal circumstances the machine will produce an excess of water as a natural by-product of its operation. Likewise, in extremely cold conditions, additional heat may be needed to sustain maximum efficiency operation.
The natural start mechanism within a cyclone is almost certainly related to the recently discovered Hot Towers and/or to mechanisms identified in other vortex break-ups. With sufficient momentum, the dumping of a mass of extremely cold, dry air over warm ocean waters, possibly with entrained hail, is seen as the probable trigger for cyclone formation. The ACE mechanism produces almost identical results to this so-called ‘microburst’ phenomenon. Identified in recent years as responsible for downing a number of conventional aircraft, the microburst effect in the ACE machine is generated in a controlled manner.
The operation of the ACE Mechanism is based on harnessing both the expansion and the contraction effects of water at the water/vapour phase-change barrier as they occur within a Horizontal Ring Vortex at a GPB. The NRV and IRV can be studied as two separate but complementary phenomena but my focus is primarily upon the IRV an the ACE. To top
The HOT (expansion) cycle.
1. A ring of high pressure dry-steam blasts outward from steam jets generated by the onboard boiler to initiate and accelerate vortex rotation.
2. The fan-forced hot air feeding the boiler passes through a vaporiser and also heats the upper, domed surface of the machine from the underside. It is then ejected with the pressurised steam to aid vortex rotation.
3. The steam and heater efflux pass over a heated, circular airfoil-shaped dome that forms the ground-plane base of the machine to maximise energy conversion into lift.
4. A circular, venturi-style airfoil positioned above the dome maximises the vortex effects and produces a pressure drop confined above the centre of the machine by the encircling ring vortex.
NB. Although steam greatly enhances the effects, the ring expulsion of air has in the past been used to produce viable lift for a number of experimental aircraft. (see 'Vapour & Vortex Engines' under 'Beamed Energy Technology' in my earlier research).To topThe COLD (contraction) cycle.
5.The being air drawn into the heater from above first passes through an M-cycle heat exchanger (or refrigeration) array to chill the air so as to maximise water removal and initiate the air’s volumetric collapse.
6.The cool and relatively dry air is then fed through the flash boiler before being sprayed with preheated water in the fan/atomiser to maximise the production of vapour entering the expansion side of the cycle. (see fig 2)
The enhancements are all designed to maximise the pressure differential inside the IRV attached to ground plane of the machine, exactly as occurs within a cyclone though in this case the ground plane happens to be the base of the machine rather than the actual ground. The artificial ground plane isolates the low pressure within the vortex from the real ground below, where normal atmospheric pressure still pertains. Massively reduced air pressure directly above the machine (within the perimeter vortex) and normal air pressure below promises to turn the machine into a lifting body of extraordinary potential. To top
In the longer term, the ACE aircraft could be developed further to use externally supplied power in the form of an energy beam of microwaves or reflected sunlight supplied fromt the ground (and/or ultimately from space). Once airborne, the ACE Mechanism aircraft would draw enormous benefit by combining with the NRV technology of pyramids.
Although the ACE aircraft (as disccussed so far) is fully autonomous, the thermal produced by a pyramid could enormously boost its lift and general performance. It is seen as entirely possible that an ACE aircraft could be designed to use the remote energy supplied in this manner as its -primary source of power.
In a manner very similar to conventional gliders, the VTOL, ACE aircraft would lift somewhat like a hot air balloon or parachute caught in the thermal of a storm. With pyramids suitably spaced across the countryside, these craft would go from one to the next without ever needing an onboard source of fuel or power. Supplied with energy from the ground, such an aircraft would be super-efficient over enormous distances. (fig.5)
Other applications to use the ACE Mechanism can best be appreciated from a study of my findings in relation to the Pharos Lighthouse, believed to be the embodiment of the most advanced form of this technology seen so far on planet Earth. The sophistication of the technology at Alexandria is still being evaluated.