A hypothesis about how storms, the major events of our weather are triggered by the initiation of naturally occurring vortexes.

Friday, 03 May 2013 02:55

The Basic Ingredients

Written by Colin McMullen

"Hurricane Katrina produced more energy than all the power stations on Earth combined" (news article)



The temperature gradient that initially drives a storm is miniscule when compared to the temperatures used in industrial power production. For efficiency, industry strives for a 1000 degrees or more to drive it's generators but the largest storm commonly works on no more than  20oC-30oC . How is this so?  To top

Basic Physics.

According to Boyle's Law, as free-flowing air is heated within the atmosphere, it's volume expands by a small amount. (ie ~1/270th/ per degree centigrade.) Thus, an increase in air temperature of 27oC will cause the volume of the air to increase by10%. This modest expansion is enough to make the air lighter and then rise by convection.

However, when water expands to vapour, it expands by a factor of 1700. Whilst water and water vapour make up only a small percentage of air they are by far the most significant mechanism in driving what we call our weather.

The main ingredient in driving the increasing wind speed and the intensity of any storm is condensation which can occur with an  almost instantaneously drop in atmospheric pressure should a vortex be initiated.  To top

In a desert,  the dry air will heat rapidly in the morning and the volume of the air may increase by 20% over the period of an hour as the tempersture goes from 0oC-50oC.  And at night, as it cools, the process is reversed. However, the presence of water vapour changes the whole process, slowing the heating proces and generally keeping temperatures more even. However, with high temperaturs and a high moisture content, the situation can change dramatically.

More vapour increases the air's volume and makes it lighter. As the air rises the air will cool and relative humidity increases, making the air increasingly unstable until, at 100% humididty, even the smallest disturbance can potentially trigger the so-called 'Butterfly Effect', the vortex phenomenon that can trigger a storm. 

When the air is super-saturated, the smallest vortex will trigger a  'positive feedback mechanism' that can turn all the available vapour into condensate or liquid water. This collapse can flow through the whole air mass within seconds turning vapour into condensate. On a hot and humid afternoon the air's volume could potentially reduce by 40% within minutes once the trigger is effected.  To top

100% Relative Humidity

As the temperature of the air drops, relative humidity rises until the dew point is reached. At that point, the volumetric collapse of vapour to liquid condensate will potentially cause an inflow that may ultimately trigger a storm. The storm may be an isolated event but it can also develop along a frontal system as a Cool Change

As a Cool Change becomes established, relative humidity rises and as more vapour condenses, a positive feedback cycle becomes established that will continue until all the available moisture is drawn in and condensed. In just minutes, in coastal cities like Sydney and Melbourne, a cool change will typically whip up high winds and cause air temperatures to plummet by as much as 20oC in a matter of minutes. The heavy rain that commonly accompanying these events can cause significant local flooding.  To top

Adiabatic Heating and Lapse Rates in Cyclones

As air rises it expands and the adiabatic process of pressure reduction with height allows the air to cool. As it descends, air pressure increases and the process acts in reverse. These effects vary very significantly depending on the vapour content of the air.  The Lapse Rate of Dry Air (DALR) is a constant 9.8oC/1000m (ie for all intents and purposes,10oC/km) and applies mainly to air in or drawn down from the Stratosphere. In stark contrast, the Wet Air Lapse Rate (WALR) of 6.5oC/km* applies to most of the air in the temperate regions within the lower atmosphere or Troposphere. the region mostly affected by weather. [*The technically a variable but in reality and for various reasons varies very little across a wide humidity range]

 Any event that causes dry air to be drawn down from the Stratosphere will heat at the DALR (ie 10oC/1000m) which is far higher than the WALR  normally associated with the air of the tropopause though which it will pass.  Should  the eye of a cyclone cause an incursion of dry air from the Stratosphere into the lower regions of the atmosphere it will potentially have a quite dramatic effect, adding vast amounts of heat to the wet air through which it passes. Indeed, the author believes this is precisely how a cyclone gains much of its power.

Air drawn down from just below the Tropopause (at say 10,000m) will heat as it descends at the WALR ( 6.5oC/km) by 65oC. However,  dry air from the Stratosphere just above will heat 50% faster (ie by 100oC), . Although mixing and radiation could be expected to mitigate the extremes, the heat gained adiabatically within the heart of an IRV nevertheless becomes a major potential contributor to cyclonic weather systems. Potentially adding gigawatts to the energy potential of this unique type of storm, cyclones are clearly a major player in reducing global warming. To top

The Tropopause, Above and Below

At the Tropopause  the temperature remains a constant -56oC. In both directions, both above and below this imaginary demarcation line, the temperature gradually increases. Below the Tropopause, in the lower atmosphere (ie the Troposphere), the atmosphere is dynamic. And, until the recent discovery of Hot Towers, the atmosphere above the Tropopause was always considered essentially inactive or static. To top

Hot Towers

Whilst the water to ice phase-change also involves a significant energy exchange and the possible release of electrical discharges, it involves only a negligibly small change in volume. However, ice particles can  trigger massive condensation and they thus play a significant role in the development of major storms. Dumps of icy cold air from so-called 'Hot Towers'  (see sidebar 4) are of particular relevance in cyclone genesis. To top


Commercial aircraft have been brought down on a number of occasions by the occurrence of a microburst from a major storm cell. Strong and impressively powerful downdrafts of cold air from the base of a thunderstorm can rob an aircraft of lift. The danger is especially critical as it comes in to land. It is thought that microbursts occurring over the sea, possibly as a result of a Hot Tower, are strongly linked to cyclone genesis.

Two Mechanisms for Cyclone Genesis

The eye of a cyclone is an inverted ring vortex (ie an externally-driven IRV). The IRV requires a very specific trigger mechanism to get started and is normally only seen in a cyclone's eye within an encirdling ring of conventional storms.

1. The recently identified 'Hot Towers', seen (by satellite thermal imaging cameras) just prior to cyclone formation  would seem to provide the most likely mechanism for cyclone genesis. As the Hot Tower looses its upward momentum and collapses back below the Troposphere, the (now frozen) vapour particles and hail may gain sufficient momentum to trigger a microburst and the formation of an inverted ring vortex (IRV).

2..An alternative mechanism could possibly be provided by the known process of vortex decay that occurs when a conventional NRV is tilted for more than a few seconds. Such tilting would almost certainly occur if  an NRV should collide with the tilted base of a  Tropical Depression and could equally well result in ice and frigid air being  dumped into the sea.

It would seem entirely possible that either or both mechanisms in unison could contribute to cyclone genesis. To top

How Sublimation contributes to a Paradox

In the overall global circulation of the atmosphere (and in arctic storms) the sublimation of ice directly to vapour is a major factor but can largely be ignored in the context of the basic research. However, it may be of consideratble significance in the longer term if global warming melts the (north) polar ice sheet.

Air flowing northward from the south pole is affected by gravity to flow down from the high antarctic plateau. Air flowing south from the North pole is floating on the sea and is thus not flowing downhill and circulation toward the equator occurs less strongly, simply to replace the warm air lifting in storms at low latitudes. The circulation in the two hemispheres is thus clearly quite different.

In so-called 'normal' conditions the cold, dry air at the arctic will still pick up some moisture from the ice and over time this will generate storms, as occur in the Antarctic. However, the situation can be expected to change significantly if global warming melts the polar ice at the North Pole each summer.

With open water, the volume of vapour released is 20x greater than when the sea is frozen and will inevitably generate far more snow than is considered the norm. Ergo, Global warming in the Northern Hemisphere creates more open water in summer and (apparently paradoxically), open water in the summer could potentially create a Northern Hemisphere Ice Age. By the obvious and quite simple mechanism, blizzards in the Fall generate vastly more snow than would have occurred had the sea been frozen over all year.

That an Ice Age could be a result of Global Warming may seem paradoxical but is easily understood within what is already known about the circulation globally within each hemisphere.

The various weather events of storm, cyclone, tornado and waterspout are all triggered by quite different basic phenomena and I saw learning how to make each one as basic to developing the methods to control, harness and utilise the power they each are able to develop. In the event, it involved two quite different basic techniques and a range of possible approaches, depending upon the specific application.

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Monday, 25 July 2011 17:48

A Global Threat

Written by Colin McMullen


A Potential Global Danger Uncovered

The realisation of how IRVs and cyclones work and grow in their power raises the grim possibility that a cyclone-type storm could come to dominate the weather on a global basis, especially in the northern hemisphere. Indeed the major winter storms experienced across Europe and North America in recent years strongly suggest this is already starting to happen and will rapidly get worse as the Arctic Ice recedes ever further every summer.

There would seem every indication the whole of the Northern Hemisphere is already in the process of plunging into an Ice Age as a direct result of so-called Global Warming. Unless the correct action is taken and taken soon an Ice Age might be triggered by the inevitable coming together of the pre-existing global circulation described earlier with the basic mechanisms of the IRV within a cyclone.  All it requires is open seas around the pole in summer time. To top

Assumptions and Preconceptions.

It has long been assumed the last Ice Age affected all the land and sea north of the ice sheets most southerly boundary but this is not necessarily so. Indeed, the mechanism now emerging to threaten us rather suggests otherwise. Though no proof has been found, the evidence of recent events suggests the last Ice Age may well have been caused by exactly the scenario now unfolding, of Arctic seas getting steadily warmer over the past 3 decades. To top

It now seems evident that an increase in summer melt across the polar ice sheet will be the perfect trigger for the establishment of a Polar Depression that could take centuries or even millennia to finally break up, if it ever did. Of course, beyond a century or so, it will be of purely academic interest because our civilisation will have long ago died out or left for warmer climes. To top

Should the mechanism as applies within a cyclone become established across the north pole when the ice sheets retreat in summer there is a strong possibility it will become almost as well established as Jupiter’s Red Spot, a storm that has rolled on for centuries. Once started it is entirely possible the IRV vortex phenomena could last until the Gulf stream stopped  and who knows what would happen then?

Disturbing Possibilities.

The accuracy of this prediction is somewhat dependent on how much energy can be drawn from the Arctic Ocean, on whether the Gulf Stream itself would survive and on estimates of how intense the polar vortex mechanism could become and/or how stable it would be. To top

The normal global atmospheric circulation and the increasing ice free region around the pole each summer would tend to keep the whole vortex mechanism centred on the pole, which would seem to suggest that, once fully established, a so-called ‘Perfect Storm’ centred on the pole is a very real possibility. The extraordinary range of possibilities is beyond the capabilities of even the largest computers to predict with any certainty. However, there is one thing of which we can be absolutely sure. There are many more bad possibilities than good ones and any suggestion that we can keep pushing the limits without the direst of consequences for large sections of the world population are horrendously and grossly optimistic.

It could hardly be seen as surprising that tales of gloom and doom are becoming widespread given the incredible thinning of the arctic icesheet since the US nuclear sub Nautilus first  took measurements in 1958. Since that time the polar ice has, on average, decreased in volume by >30% and, despite the claims of the global warming sceptics, the long tern trend appears to be accelerating.

Make no changes and the prospects for the future survival of our civilisation look distinctly grim. However, the alarm has now been raised and the chances are actually quite promising that realistic solutions will be put in place. If only its potential is recognised, the technology revealed on this site could make all the difference. To top

A Glimmer of Hope.

If my research proves anything at all, it is that controlling the weather and thus the climate may not be such a forlorn hope as the vast majority of the populous would seem to assume. Indeed, the evidence from ancient sites  suggests the weather was once controlled to some significant degree in our distant past before the knowledge was finally lost in the Middle Ages.

Why the technology was lost is essentially of no importance and the reasons clearly varied from place to place. What is significant is that ancient nations right around the world with no significant  technology as we know it, were able to cultivate arid regions sufficiently well to feed large populations using those lost technique. 

It would now seem that the technique of  reverse engineering has once again placed this ancient technology within our grasp. Furthermore, it can be shown as being well within the industrial capacity of even the poorest of nations.  To impliment the necessary changes swiftly, all it requires is for the know-how to once again be fully developed and for it to then be made available in every region, according to the abilities, assets and capabilities of the local farmers. With the right knowledge, there's not a farmer in the world who would not seek to take control of his future by improving his land and raising its production.

Working together, with the right techniques, farmers could quickly change the driest of landscapes and/or mitigate the deadliest of land-based storms. A more pro-active approach will be needed to mitigate major cyclones but that would also appear a possibility. It only requires that nations too, start  working together which would surely occur once the efficacy of the technology was proven.

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Tuesday, 21 June 2011 17:03

Vortexes as Energy Amplifiers

Written by Colin McMullen
weather theory

Roll Cloudhurricane_katrina
1.Roll cloud

Hook Echo on Radar
2.Hook Echo forming

3. Hot Tower above
a Tropical Depression

4.Mature Thunderstorm

5.The ACE Circulation
of a cyclone

6. The NRV Circulation
of a thunderstorm

7.Hurricane Katrina

"Tthe sun supplies more energy to Earth in an hour, than all the power stations combined produce in a year."

Linear Vortexes

As an energy phenomenon, the tornado needs no introduction. However, unless constantly supplied with energy from a ring vortex, the linear vortex of the tornado funnel will use up its energy within minutes at most and will then disperse. The linear vortex is responsible for most (smaller) tornados, squalls, micro-bursts and chaotic wind shear and does incredible damage.  Preventing them entirely or at least reducing their power would seem a worthwhile achievement but certainly requires that we understand the phenomena somewhat better than we do at present. To top

Most frequently forming horizontally at a frontal conjunction, a linear vortex can be constrained as a roll cloud if it forms in close association with the ground. Vortexes of this type, known as roll clouds can form when a cool air mass crosses a far warmer sea. The warm sea provides an energy-dense source of vapour but also acts as a constraining ‘ground barrier’. To top

Commonly identified in Australia in the late afternoon as Perth’s ‘Freemantle doctor’, Melbourne’s ‘Cool change’ and Sydney’s ‘Southerly Buster’, they may also occur shortly after dawn. The most dramatically beautiful and supreme example occurs shortly after dawn at certain times of year in the Gulf of Carpentaria in the Northern Territory of Australia when conditions are otherwise calm.. This unique phenomena, known as the  'Morning Glory'  sometimes stretches east to west across the sea for 1000km

However, a controlled linear vortex like the Morning Glory is definitely the exception. When Linear vortexes occur within a frontal conjunction between two differing air masses, the collision generates a horizontal linear vortex that is initiated far above the ground.  To top

Unconstrained by the close proximity of a suitable horizontal surface, the vortex will rapidly become extremely unstable and will wobble, tilt and break up into shorter sections. Predictably, within each section the cooler end will sink toward the ground as the unit as a whole seeks a more stable, vertical alignment. The event is commonly recorded on local radar as the characteristic ‘hook echo’ of a ‘string’ or ‘series’ tornado. This event, characteristic of a powerful frontal conjunction is most commonly seen in the central states of the USA.

There seems little chance these linear vortexes can usefully be contained but it may shortly be possible to limit their general frequency and/or strength. To top

Horizontal Ring Vortexes

Unlike linear vortexes, the HRV, in either of its two defined orientations, (ie the normal NRV and the inverted IRV), offers a number of possibilities for controlling the weather in all its forms as well as the means to extract unlimited usable energy from the air for all possible purposes, plus copious quantities of fresh water and an entirely new type of aircraft, that also promises almost unlimited potential. When the promises are realised, HRVs will provide the miracle technologies of our future. To top

Exactly like the ring vortexes blown by smokers to amuse a child, the horizontal vortex ring  (HRV) is an extremely stable phenomenon and remains so whether the vortex is blown vertically up or vertically down. Although both of these phenomena can grow to any size, the type of storm they create and their application is dramatically different and highly significant to this research. To top

NB It should be noted however, that should the axis of a ring vortex be tilted in any way for more than a few seconds, it will rapidly break down, often with extreme violence, into two counter-rotating linear vortexes. To top

General Characteristics of HRVs

Once formed, the behaviour of the horizontal ring vortex (HRV) can be dramatically altered if it is formed or positioned close to an associated ground plane. A simple experiment with smoke rings can demonstrate this attachment process and the fact the ring-to-groundplane combination is then potentially stable until tilted.

The attachment of the vortex ring to a flat surface occurs due to the speed of the air flowing between the vortex core and the surface. This attachment to a ground plane will occur irrespective of whether the air is flowing inwards or outwards from the centre. However, the attachment is stronger and more stable when the air is flowing outwards from the vortex centre. This in part may explain why a cyclone is so powerful and so stable and why conventional thunderstorms initially break free from the ground and climb high into the sky. To top

A Combination of Forces

When a vortex bubble is formed by the convection of vapour-laden air, it forms an INTERNALLY-driven normal ring vortex, an NRV. This NRV initially has high natural buoyancy but what happens next is determined by 5 main factors.

1.The air’s vapour content and thus its initial buoyancy.

2.The internal speed of vortex rotation.

3.The frictional contact of the vortex with the surrounding air.

4.The mass of the vortex as a unit as its relative humidity rises and, ultimately

5.By low pressure beneath the vortex created by its proximity to the ground and the speed of the inflowing wind. To top

Having formed, a buoyant vortex will rapidly bridge the gap between the ground and the Cloud Base Layer or Dew Point. In a simple storm, condensation at the cloud base creates an area of low pressure that increasingly raises the wind speed of vapour being drawn into the base of the storm. As it grows its increasing mass will ultimately allow the combined effects to suck the whole unit down to the ground, cutting off the vapour and quenching it and so stopping the storm from growing further and initiating its collapse..

In extreme circumstances  when the storm initially forms relatively high above the ground, the buoyancy of the air mass will delay this final collapse until long after the inflow has formed into the deadliest storm type of all, the supercell tornado. The supercell can be identified by its extreme size and a massive and generally ragged funnel cloud at its base. To top

The occurrence of the vapour build-up that leads to series and supercell tornados could conceivably by avoided by pro-actively triggering the formation of numerous smaller conventional storm cells over the whole area.

It is seen as something more than coincidence that an area of Louisiana ~400km in diameter on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico was once home to 20,000 small pyramids that just conceivably could have served this precise role. A similar area in Illinois, just north of the critical so-called Dry Line, was also once home to a similar deployment of 20,000 small pyramids. To top

It was originally assumed by archaeologists that these small 6m-10m pyramids were Indian burial mounds but serious doubt can now be cast on this assumption. Farmers illegally destroyed 95% of the mounds in search of potentially valuable burial goods. And although no one is likely to own up to it, the lack of burial goods in circulation rather suggests their efforts were largely fruitless. Indeed it would now seem these mounds should join the 99% of all other pyramids that archaeologists readily accept were never built as tombs. But what was their primary role if it was not for burials? To top

In a region where tornados are common and increasing in their strength and frequency, 39,000 small but ancient pyramids have been wilfully destroyed in recent decades, apparently for no good purpose. Is it too much to believe that the builders so long ago had some knowledge, since lost, about how to prevent tornados and that the destruction of these apparently innocent structures has just revealed precisely why they were built in the first place? The vortex mechanisms I have been working on suggest it might be so.  To top

The Mechanisms of the Ring Vortex

An Important Series of Thought Experiments

1. Imagine a wheel going along a road. When the axis is travelling at say 2kmh, the speed of the wheel’s at its point of contact with the road is zero and the top of the wheel is travelling forward at 4kmh. Now in your mind's eye turn the unit 90o. With wheel now running up or down the wall, it should now be possible to visualise the situation within a ring vortex. It is important to note that the speed in the centre of the vortex is travelling at twice the speed of the unit as a whole and that, relative to the stationary ambient air, the speed of the outside of the vortex ring is at or close to zero. To top

Contact with the surrounding air provides the friction that allows the unit to drive either up or down the wall and this force can be added or subtracted from the unit’s total buoyancy.

2. The presence of a physical ‘ground plane barrier’ in very close proximity to the vortex ring will also act as a strong attractive force. Once established, regardless of the direction of the vortex’s internal rotation, this attractive force will always act to draw the vortex ring towards the so-called ‘ground plane’.  In Nature, this force can easily exceed 1tonne/m2 and is only limited by the size and intensity of the vortex ring producing the effect.  NB It is worthy of note that the IRV that forms a cyclone’s eye can easily be 50-100 kilometres in diameter. To top

3. The one fact totally essential to the integrity of the vortex ring is that the ‘ground plane barrier’ must always be perfectly horizontal. Within seconds, even the slightest tilt that allows gravity to separate the hot air out from the cold within the vortex ring will see the ring break up, potentially with extreme violence. (As discussed later, the proviso about gravity is highly significant when it comes to usefully harnessing this energy)

4. With a little consideration it is clear that, provided it is perfectly horizontal, this ‘ground plane barrier’ could also be above the vortex ring and it could also be made of any surface or barrier material that in any way acts to control the overall motion of the vortex ring. It would certainly include water below the vortex ring and may also, I suggest, include a strong temperature inversion above the ring, as would occur when the vortex reached the Tropopause. To top

5.  As it climbs into the air, the jet being ejected upwards from the core of the vortex ring (see 6 above) is expelled at twice the speed of the unit as a whole. The core ejecta is nominally the fastest-moving air within the vortex unit and wind speeds within major storms have been clocked in excess of 250kmh. What can be produced by an artificial mechanism remains to proven.

Should the vortex ring somehow be stopped from rising or seriously slowed down, as occurs at the known inversion of the Tropopause layer, the rotational momentum will undoubtedly keep going and may thus generate a number of possible outcomes. To top

The Mechanisms of the Cyclone

The Tropopause is the ultimate force blocking the upward motion of a NRV within a Tropical Depression. The Tropopause is an inversion layer between the Troposphere and Stratosphere. Being, as its name suggests, a depression, the tropopause marking this divide is likely to be dished down at an angle to the horizontal and, as previously discussed, an angled ground plane barrier of any type is likely to be bad news for the integrity of a ring vortex. To top

It can (and has) been demonstrated that if the upward (or downward) momentum of a toroid is halted but not specifically tilted, it will cause a strong downdraft from all around the outside of the vortex ring as the ring tries to push up (or downwards) through the blocking layer. In the atmosphere, the rotational energy will also still continue generating a warm vertical jet of moist air from the vortex core that has the potential to penetrate upwards through the tropopause layer at significant speed. To top

Although this is pure conjecture, we know that any tilting of a vortex ring will cause it to rapidly break up into two counter-rotating vortexes. A collision with the sloping angle of a Tropical Depression would likely send cold air inwards and down and warm air outwards and up. Either and/or both of these events could be the trigger for cyclone genesis. To top

Cyclone Genesis

Although these blocking effects will disperse the energy of rotation quite rapidly, the upward jet may well generate a so-called Hot Tower (see fig 3 in side bar) that extends far above the Tropopause and potentially kilometres up into the Stratosphere above. Stripped of its accompanying ring vortex, this vertical jet will rapidly cool, freeze, and then drop back down through the Tropopause at significant speed. In doing so, it will create a powerful downdraught with sufficient momentum to ultimately hit the ground or the sea and splay outwards as a microburst to create an inverted ring vortex, an IRV.

Notably, although retaining much of its momentum this descending air will heat adiabatically and by the time it reaches the ground, will have warmed very significantly. As it then blasts outwards in a ring, the now-warm but still largely dry air will generate the release of an expanding ring of vapour from the surface of the sea. To top

A vapour ring created in this manner will generate convection to occur EXTERNAL to the vortex being created and so possibly become the externally-driven inverted ring vortex (IRV) of a cyclone’s eye. Once initiated, the outward flow and unusual (inverted) vortex rotation is pressed strongly to the ground by the frictional effects it generates with the surrounding air (as in 5 above). The centre of the vortex ring is fed by adiabatic heating and by increased evaporation from the sea due to the significantly lowered atmospheric pressure within the vortex ring.

Evidence that this is the mechanism triggering a cyclone can be seen in the recently discovered phenomenon of ‘Hot Towers’, a phenomena noted in  satellite thermal image photos taken by NASA from above Tropical Depressions minutes prior to the formation of a cyclone. To top

Two Powerful Vortex Phenomena

Ring vortexes trigger the phase-change reactions of water, vapour and ice in a controlled and/or controllable way within the atmosphere. Thus, as well as being the primary amplification mechanism that enables storms to build in their power, they also allow an engineering solution to harnessing that energy.

Both HRV’s, (the IRV and the NRV) allow the development of powerful but relatively simple mechanisms for harnessing the energy of storms. One, the NRV, is essentially automatic, the other, (the IRV), whilst potentially a more powerful phenomena, requires a specific radial flow mechanism to get it started.

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Friday, 10 June 2011 16:34

Discovering the Weather Connection

Written by Colin McMullen
"Whether the weather be cold or whether the weather be hot, we'll weather the weather, whatever the weather, whether we like it or not," (unknown)




Having studied lost technologies for decades, I came to realise the 45,000+ ancient pyramids on record might all be linked by the sophisticated use of sunlight and other forms of beamed energy. Whilst the sun and solar energy were clearly the developmental base of the technology, the widespread use of mica at Teotihuacan presented a very strong case for the ancient use of microwaves. Lasers and xrays also remained as theoretical possibilities but evidence of their use was far less well defined. However, I initially had no proven basis for defining how the energy might have been used.

The development in 1997 of NASA's Lightcraft project provided the proof I needed that beamed energy could indeed be used to power an aircraft. The tests provided the base I needed but also indicated that some major factor was still missing. Whilst nominally successful, it was clear that laser's used far too much energy by at least an order of magnitude, both in energy propagation and in it's conversion to thrust at the craft. The final chapter in the reconstruction turned out to involve how the energy was used at the craft to produce the desired effects.

Recognising that the natural phenomena seen in storms might hold the key, I began investigating the many vortex phenomena that combine in various ways to drive our weather. The development of a new hypothesis on how the weather worked led me finally to the recovery of an entire lost technology not seen on earth for 700 years. The technology is based entirely upon the replication and harnessing of natural atmospheric phenomena for a wide range of differnt applications and is arguably the most significant discovery in the modern era, bar none. To top

Discovering the Weather Connection

Solar energy, water and water vapour combine in various ways to power our climate and its weather.  The  expansion and contraction essential to any mechanical energy cycle are provided in our weather by the phase-change reactions of water, primarily at the vapour/water phase-change barrier.

As it vaporises and condenses water expands and contracts by a factor of 1700:1. one of the highest phase-change ractions in Nature (exceeded only by amonia). As a litre of water converts to 1700 litres of vapour air it makes the air containing it much lighter than the dry air found in the Stratosphere. As the vapour recondenses and contraction occurs, the falling raindrops drag down the surrounding air. Depending upon circumstance, I was soon to realise the two effects might act quite differently in the many different types of storm.

This new technolgy opens up the potential to harness unlimited energy, to climate control in all its many forms and to an entirely new and clean type of VTOL aircraft of vitually unlimited capacity that harnesses the incredible lift capability of a tornado.

Solar heating causes direct evaporation from water that increases exponentially should the wind's speed or the temperature rise significantly. Sublimation from snow or ice is also significant but is actually more important by default since open Arctic waters release 20x more vapour than is released by sublimation from a similar area of ice-bound sea. To top

Global warming is credited with creating an increasing area of open water in the Arctic Ocean in summer but these open waters also release far more vapour than an equal area of ice and snow and so become a major factor in causing major blizzards across the northern hemisphere in autumn and early winter before the sea finally freezes over. The significance of these effects on global circulation and on global warming is still debated but the basic elements are essentially beyond dispute.

As solar heating warms the ocean, vapour is driven from the surface. Being far lighter than the surrounding air, the vapour content makes the air mass near the surface ever more unstable until such time the vapour-laden air starts rising by convection. This convective lifting may occur as isolated bubbles or along the whole frontal conjunction of two air masses, most especially if they have strongly dissimilar properties. To top

Convective lifting causes mixing and creates two kinds of vortex and these vortexes are the main drivers of global weather. The simple linear vortex converts an energy potential into demonstrated power as seen in a roll cloud or a tornado. Although there is no simple way to control or harness them, linear vortexes absorb massive amounts of energy in those enormously powerful, energetic phenomena  mainly recognised as tornados and squalls.

However, the Horizontal Ring Vortex or HRV is different. It is by far the most significant phenomena responsible for amplifying the available energy differentials within the atmosphere in a relatively stable manner. 'Normal' HRVs (NRVs) most commonly occur when an isolated bubble of warm air rises from the ground or the sea on a warm summer’s day.  To top

Initially extremely stable, an NRV absorbs energy and builds up wind speeds and pressure differentials within an isolated storm cell. In the most  extreme circumstance it produces a ‘Supercell’ tornado, the most massive and dangerous of all storms.  The far more common ‘series’ tornado, is created from the breakup of a linear vortex, usually along the face of a moving frontal system in places like the central states of the USA.  Although forming in almost identical conditions the series tornado generally involves a roll cloud rather than a ring vortex and is generally far less powerful and of far shorter duration.  To top

However, when HRV’s break up, as they eventually must, they generally do so as two counter-rotating linear vortexes that then release their energy as tornados, squalls and micro-bursts. They also collide with other vortexes and combine to produce any number of chaotic combinations all ultimately derived from energy initially developed by convection and/or the HRV phenomena. To top

Both vortex types can generate storm activity and they commonly interact, exchanging energy and/or converting from one type to the other with quite remarkable speed, depending upon circumstances. Despite this, individually the various types otherwise demonstrate quite remarkably different properties and are otherwise totally dissimilar as can readily be demonstrated with quite simple experiments.

The horizontal ring vortex (HRV) is undoubtedly the primary energy amplifier and generator and can form or be created either the 'normal' way up or 'inverted'.  As warm convective air rises it does so as a bubble and forms a conventional or normal vortex ring (NRV). Far more rarely, an HRV can be formed by an inial burct of extremely cold air descending within a much larger storm or stormbank and when this happens it forms a vortex with warm convective air rising external to the vortex core.

This inverted, externally driven, IRV phenomena is only immediately apparent in Nature within the eye of a cyclone. However it is also experienced in the windshear events of microbursts associated with storm activity that can be totally deadly to any aircraft at low altitude. To top

Ultimately these IRVs can be sustained  by a outer circle of warm air carried upwards as a part of a closed ring of encircling storms. They then form a part of the rotational cycle we recognise as the eye of a cyclone. Significantly, this process gives a cyclone two additional source of energy unique to this type of storm. The first comes from the vapour driven from the surfce of the sea. The second is a previously little recognised source of energy only made available within a cyclone's eye by the adiabatic heating of dry air drawn down from the Stratosphere, (ie from above the Tropopause) into the eye of the storm. [The Tropopause is the dividing layer between the nominally ‘inactive’ layer of the Stratosphere above and the so-called ‘active’ layer below, known as the Troposphere].

Individually, the two HRV’s (the IRV and the NRV) are possibly the least appreciated but most remarkably significant phenomena as regards both our weather and (arguably) the future of civilisation as we know it. To top

A Much Delayed Discovery

I believe I have uncovered the legendary 'secret knowledge' of the Ancients, locked away in the very design and physical detail of the Great Pyramid of Giza for 4000 years. As a repository of knowledge, the Great Pyramid displays it in a way that allowed the detail to be recovered by anyone who was sufficiently aware and had some very basic knowledge of physics and mathematics.

The recovery of this technology would undoubtedly have been made far sooner but for some earthquakes and some rather misplaced academic isolationism. To top

1. The smooth outer casing of the pyramid was stripped off in the 14th century to rebuild Cairo after a major earthquake*. It seems the artificial (geopolymer) stone of the pyramid’s casing was far better quality than anything available locally and was obviously readily available. The removal of the stone almost totally destroyed the unique feature of the Great Pyramid that was also the most significant key to solving the whole mystery. It's smoothly polished outer shell.(* The same earthquake is probably responsible for the final destruction of th Pharos Lighthouse, another key piece of the puzzle).

2. When the data revealing the pyramid’s extraordinary precision was finally recognised in the late 19th century,  another unfortunate series of events saw the data essentially buried for a further 100 years. Had the pyramid still had its original sheathing and/or had the data about it been more widely published it would almost certainly have alerted mathematicians and scientists to the deeper purpose of the structure. (see also The Greatest Fraud in History - or merely misdirection?)  To top

Ever-expanding Horizons

Piecing together the many aspects of vortex technology especially as it relates to our past, has only became possible with the eclectic explosion of data available on the World Wide Web.

Now, as the pieces come together from all around the world, the picture emerging shows ever-more connections between what we now know in science and the previously enigmatic data from our past, providing an ever increasing feedback cycle and a rapid acceleration of connected knowledge that now covers and provides solutions for many of the enigmatic mysteries of our past. Proving out the evidence with practical testing has only served to expand the fields of discovery ever further. To top

Although still entirely relevant, my early discoveries of the ancient use of beamed energy technology has recently paled before the more urgent and immediate findings relating to global warming and  the very real possibility now, of developing climate control technology and the opening up of a totally new and unlimited souce of clean energy.

By persistently pecking away at the trail of one lost technology I've uncovered a number of other, previously lost technologies far beyond anything I'd even dreamt of. These discoveries have the potential to completely change our understanding of both our past and our future. And whilst all of this knowledge ties back directly to the technology of the pyramids and the Great Pyramid in particular it could also be said to cover almost every facet of our human past.

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